Thursday, March 19, 2020
Capital Punishment Should be Banned essays Capital Punishment should be banned. Today thousands of people around the world commit crimes. For a society to be civilized, these people have to be punished. This punishment is meted out in different forms. Isolation from the society by imprisonment, or taking away some rights from the individual, are some forms of punishment. For severe crimes, the punishment too is severe, one of the forms being capital punishment or the death sentence. Whether it is right or wrong remains a big question mark. Families of victims of murders, rape etc. are absolutely devastated by the crimes and demand justice. Sometimes the society too, is convinced that these criminals dont deserve to live. Allowing such criminals to live would only mean that more people follow the path of crime. Therefore giving them the death sentence would not only be a suitable form of justice, it would also set an example for other criminals and prevent future crimes from occurring. As the saying goes, An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. People should know better than to commit such crimes. Hardened criminals obviously wont have any positive effect on humanity and the human race is better off without them. People, whove taken away the lives of others and broken up families while knowing that it is against the law, probably have no conscience. Rehabilitation, Imprisonment, or anything else is not going to help them change for the better. Moreover prisoners arent compelled to work and survive on food and shelt er provided by taxpayers. Why should civilized people help criminals live? Since they have no contribution to make to the world, theyd rather be put to death. Moreover stretching the life out of them is probably worse then killing them at once. However, Life is a gift given to us all. We all have been given the right to live our lives, the way we want to. Taking away someone elses is definitely beyond our auth...
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Create an Endothermic Chemical Reaction MostÃ endothermic reactionsÃ contain toxic chemicals, but this reaction is safe and easy. Indeed, this experiment requires no toxic chemicalsÃ a rarity in chemistry studies. Use it as a demonstration or vary the amounts of citric acid and sodium bicarbonate to make an experiment. Materials Citric acid and baking soda are available at most grocery stores. Citric acid is used for canning, while baking soda is used for baking. Heres what youll need: 25 milliliters of citric acid solution15 grams of baking sodaplastic foam cupthermometerstirring rod Creating the Reaction Pour the citric acid solution into aÃ coffee cup. Use a thermometer or other temperature probe to record the initial temperature.Stir in the baking sodaÃ sodium bicarbonate. Track the change in temperature as a function of time.The reaction is: H3C6H5O7(aq) 3 NaHCO3(s) Ã¢â â 3 CO2(g) 3 H2O(l) Na3C6H5O7(aq)When you have completed your demonstration or experiment, wash the cup out in a sink. Tips for Success Feel free to vary the concentration of the citric acid solution or the quantity of sodium bicarbonate.An endothermic is a reaction that requires energy to proceed. The intake of energy may be observed as a decrease in temperature as the reaction proceeds. Once the reaction is complete, the temperature of the mixture will return to Ã¢â¬â¹Ã¢â¬â¹room temperature.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Provide an insight into the relative strengths and weaknesses of internal and external recruitment - Essay Example sed to legally get hold of an adequate number of qualified individuals at the right place and time so that the people and the organization can select each other in their interests. This means that the recruitment process gives the organization a number of potentially qualified job candidates from which employers can make well judged selection to fill available jobs (Dessler, 2002). Recruitment might be carried out through internal or external sources. In instances when internal recruitment does not generate the number or quality of staff needed, the organization has to recruit from external sources (Community for human resource management, 2008). Internal recruitment is recruitment which takes place in the organization. It is the hunt for in-house personnel who have the skills and attitudes to accomplish the requirements needed and to facilitate the organization attain its goals.Ã Internal vacancies can be promoted within the business through staff notice boards, intranets (website whose viewing is limited to the organizations members), in-house magazines, newsletters and staff meetings. In case of internal recruitment, employees are transferred from one department to another based on their competence and knowledge. The can also be promoted from one department to another with additional benefits and greater responsibility according to his or her competence and skill. This can be done through job postings which is advertising a vacant position to employees and mentioning its requirements. Upgrading or demotions are another example of internal recruitment. Retired and retrenched employees may also be recruited once again if there is a scarcity of competent personnel or the work load increases. Recruitment of such individuals saves time and costs of the organization as they are previously conscious of the organizational set up and the regulations. The dependents and relatives of deceased employees and disabled employees are also employed by numerous organizations
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Mahatma Gandhi - Research Paper Example Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi believed that violence merely attracts more violence. He therefore discouraged his true followers from violently engaging the colonial authorities who ruled India before 1947. Gandhi wanted to force the imperialists to consider the harm that their presence in India was doing to the ethnic population. To this end, Gandhi believed that engaging in terrorist acts would not help IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s cause. He read about the concept of non-violent protest, as described by the American, Henry Thoreau, and fashioned his protest movement on precepts that were propagated by Thoreau. During his lifetime, Henry Thoreau was believed to be a dangerous anarchist. This is because he refused to support a government that had rules in place to support institutions such as slavery- which he deeply disapproved of. Thoreau, however, did not try to start a revolution in his time. He was merely trying to convince the public that there could be a more just government if this was demanded by the citizens. Thoreau believed that responsible citizens had the duty to refuse to pay taxes to a corrupt government. Thoreau actually decided not to pay taxes in order to demonstrate this point. He was arrested and confined to jail in 1848 for this action. He disapproved of the actions of the friend that paid his bail. T his experience inspired him to pen the essay Ã¢â¬ËCivil DisobedienceÃ¢â¬â¢, soon after. This proposal on the performance of acts of civil disobedience would be read and implemented years after ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s death by men like Mohandas Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr. Thesis Statement: ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s treatise contributed to the transformation of the world when revolutionary leaders like King and Gandhi used it to launch successful protests against colonialism and institutionalized racism. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, who would later simply be known as Mahatma
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Job Analysis Questionnaires Are Structured Tools Psychology Essay Kevin Leon Menezes , wrote an article in 2009, in which he said that : Pakistan is actively participating to rename our Personnel Departments as Human Resources, the remaining developed markets are literally asking that : Is HR a career in crisis ? The best answer lies here that HR has an important role and is evolving and we have to move forward and leave behind the traditional administrative functions and to contribute dynamically n positively accordingly. A research conducted by Elina M. Antila Anne Kakkonen in 2008 depicts that the top level management believes that the participation of the HR managers is of due importance and they agree upon that there should be a common policy in this regard. Certain factors which explain the roles in the case organizations mainly focused on certain factor groups and they were found similar across the respective cases. Now, the problem lies here that our situation is completely different than that of the developed markets and this is primarily because of the fact the HR here is mainly practices by the multinational companies. Paucity of the Pakistani firms has developed their HR factions to a great extent but on the contrary these factions are the concepts being borrowed from the West or Japan. However, criticizing the HR seems to be the main issue around the globe respectively. Every organization has jobs and it has to go through the process of staffing. Job analysis is the main process through which one determines the duties of the required positions and the credentials of the people in order to hire them. Job analysis leads to write job descriptions and job specifications. A job description entails the information of what the job involves. In addition to this. Job description brings harmony to the work functions, support to maintain a well constructed salary structure and help the employees to understand their jobs in an easy manner. The main objective of the job analysis is that it focuses on the knowing of the different components of a workers job. The gist of job analysis is mainly effectiveness and efficiency that is to do the right thing in a right manner respectively. The prime motive we get from the job analysis is that it increases companys profitability, productivity and sustainability. A job description is a calligraphy which provides certain information on all the required duties and responsibilities assigned to the individuals performing a job. Clear, accurate and thorough job descriptions are important to the performance of the organization and for the employees as well. Job description is important for every position in the organization. It is a contract with the employee and it must be provided to him. It should be simple and precise and on the contrary if its not precise, it will affect the overall performance of the employee. Mostly, job analysis provides the information in the job description. The job analysis should be accurate and complete. Job description describes the job irrespective of the persons who hold that job. A well constructed job description should be kept specific, manageable and it should also have a direct relationship with the performance review in order to measure the performance management using ones job description. 2.1Job Analysis Tools THE CONTEXT OF WORK (REALISTIC JOB PREVIEW-RJP) Nowadays it is common for human resource professionals to recognize that job interviews are now a two-way process. In order to make this statement simpler, the hiring organization assesses the candidates while the candidates assess the hiring organization and the job respectively. This is mainly the understanding and thus it develops the Realistic Job Preview (RJP). It is now an essential part of the process of recruitment process in which the different organizations provide both favorable and unfavorable work information to their candidates. 2.2 What is a Realistic Job Preview? Realistic Job Previews (RJPs) are devices which are used in the initial stages of personnel selection in order to provide the potential candidates with information on the pros and cons of the job. This does not include the duties of the job but also what the job is exactly like and what are the working conditions to be considered. This type of preview certainly happens in the initial stages of the selection process. It provides a realistic picture of the ambience to the candidate and also covers: Norms of the organization The environment in which the candidates will work The ordinary tasks that the potential candidates may face RJP provides the candidate detailed information regarding the job so that they can decide for their suitability for the job. RJP shall portray a clear picture to the candidates informing them about the positive and negative aspects of the job in order to be successful. It is an essential part of the process of selection in which it gives the clear idea of the job to the candidates after being hired. Some experts believe that if the information provided to the candidates during an RJP is accurate, then it will be easy for the candidates to decide whether the job is right for them or not. By using the process of RJP, it reduces the expectations of the candidates who dont think that certain conditions will meet their requirements. This helps the organization a great deal as when the individuals accept the job, their expectations are not too high from the organization and thus it results in fewer apprehensions. Fleishman Job Analysis Survey F.jas is a hand book for ability requirement. It is a taxonomy which has detailed description of different kind of abilities required for a job. F. Jas contains specific job analysis scale. Functional Job Analysis Scale FJA was first used in 1940. Now days it uses seven scales to find out the performance of the workers Things Data People Worker Instructions Reasoning Math Language F.JA was used for a long time in USA as a part of the DOT. This has now been replaced by O.NET MOSAIC The office of the personal Management (OPM) is using multipurpose occupational system Analysis. Inventory close ended for information on federal court job. The OPM has started different projects; each project is working on different occupation. Two types of description are used, which are Tasks and Competency. MOSAIC is in fact working in all Govt Jobs. OCCUPTIONAL ANALYSIS INVENTORY (OAI) It was designed to yield mal job information It has five categories. 1 information received 2 Mental Activities 3 work behaviors 4Work Goals 5 Work Context. OAI has been used to gather information on 1400 jobs. However the reliability has been lower as compared to PAQ. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) It is a study of job characteristic against human characteristics. The item of study has five catagories. Information input Mental process Work output Relationship with other persons Job context The researchers have collected a large data which has given reasonably good results. Work Profiling System (WPS) The system was developed to help employees to help accomplish human resources functions. The WPS has computerized system which records symbols of qualities related to personality like hearing skills, sight, taste , smell, touch, Body coordination, verbal skills, Number skills, complex Management skills, personality and Team Role. DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES In 1930, the occupational information was local so there was no co-ordination in different affairs. In 1934 a national database was developed and so in 1939 the first dictionary of occupation data DOT was published. However in 1990 it has become less useful due to many reasons. When in 1991 the published fifth edition, it was discovered that the new technological change are making the job more complicated, so the DOT approach was developed by US Employment service, despite that DOT is extensively used in social Security and immigration adjudication within the united state. Job analysis questionnaires are structured tools used to gather information about work as it is performed in each organization. Questionnaires may be used by the job analyst in an interview or completed by the job incumbent. Preparation of a job analysis questionnaire takes both time and skill of individuals knowledgeable of the jobs being analyzed and the development of questionnaires. Job analysis questionnaires may be hardcopy or electronic. They may be designed specifically for an organization, or more general to collect information from a large number of people working in many different organizations. Some conventional job analysis programs ask job incumbents to complete a preliminary questionnaire describing their jobs. The purpose is to provide the job analyst with a first draft of the necessary job information. It is also meant to be a first step in obtaining incumbent and supervisor approval of the final job description. Of course, not all employees enjoy filling out questionnaires. Also, employees vary in verbal and reading skills and may overstate or understate their work activities. Usually, the job analyst follows up the questionnaire by interviewing the employee and observing his or her job. Position Analysis Questionnaire The best-known quantitative approach to job analysis is the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ). Developed by Dr. Ernest J. McCormick* and associates at Purdue University, the position analysis questionnaire is a structured job analysis questionnaire containing 194 items called job elements. These elements are worker-oriented. Using the terminology of the Department of Labors 1972 job analysis formula, they would be classified as worker behaviors. The items are organized into six divisions: (1) information input (2) mental processes (3) work output (physical activities and tools) (4) relationships with others (5) job context (the physical and social environment) (6) other job characteristics (such as pace and structure) Each job element is rated on six scales: extent of use, importance, time, possibility of occurrence, applicability, and a special code for certain jobs. (*During and after WWII, Dr. McCormick worked for the Federal Government contributing to the Dictionary of Occupational Titles.) These descriptors flow from McCormicks model of the operational functions basic to all jobs: sensing (information receiving), information storage, information processing, and decision and action (physical control or communication). These functions vary in emphasis from job to job. Job analysts or supervisors usually complete the position analysis questionnaire. In some instances managerial, professional, or other white-collar job incumbents fill out the instrument. The reason for such limitations is that the reading requirements of this questionnaire is at the college-graduate level. Analyzing Job Analysis Questionnaire Data Data from the position analysis questionnaire can be analyzed in several ways. For a specific job, individual ratings can be averaged to yield the relative importance of and emphasis on various job elements, and the results can be summarized as a job description. The elements can also be clustered into a profile rating on a large number of job dimensions to permit comparison of this job with others. Estimates of employee aptitude requirements can be made. Job evaluation points can be estimated from the items related to pay. Finally, an occupational prestige score can be computed. Analysts can have position analysis questionnaire data computer-analyzed by sending the completed questionnaire to PAQ Services. Position Analysis Questionnaire Uses The position analysis questionnaire has been used for job evaluation, selection, performance appraisal, compensation planning, assessment-center development, determination of job similarity, development of job families, vocational counseling, determination of training needs, and job desig The Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) developed by McCormick, Jeanneret, and Mecham (1972) is a structured job analysis instrument to measure job characteristics and relate them to human characteristics. It consists of 195 job elements that represent in a comprehensive manner the domain of human behavior involved in work activities. The items that fall into five categories: Information input (where and how the worker gets information), Mental processes (reasoning and other processes that workers use), Work output (physical activities and tools used on the job), Relationships with other persons, and Job context (the physical and social contexts of work). Over the course of many studies, PAQ researchers have aggregated PAQ data for hundreds of jobs; that database is maintained by Purdue University. A wealth of research exists on the PAQ; it has yielded reasonably good reliability estimates and has been linked to several assessment tools
Friday, January 17, 2020
Writings For readers why are not familiar with Flannels O' Connors writings, they tend give the reader emotional devastation because If all the gothic elements such as the violence and the messed up religious elements. The short stories that she creates give off an uncongenial feeling and possesses the readers feelings towards the stories. Many of these stones have both violence and religious aspects to them.Fate plays a big role In the stories climaxes. Either the mall character or the antagonists encounter what seems to be fate and start off violent but end up as If they saw the errors of their ways or felt as of a higher power has accepted them. In the end of AGAINST the characters encounter the misogynist right after they crash. They meet him by fate. Fate is not always a good thing. Later on the violence in the story happens when the whole family is murdered by them.The antagonist in this story understands that what he did is not right and he can act as a Christ figure because h e brought the thoughts of people out of them as if they were confessing something to him. In The Circle in the Fire the antagonists violently burn down everything around the barn, and then danced around it as if they felt like they needed to do and if a higher power has accepted them. The impact her endings give off are disastrous and thought provoking leaving the reader in awe.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Battle of Churubusco - Conflict Date: The Battle of Churubusco was fought August 20, 1847, during the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). Armies Commanders United States Major General Winfield ScottMajor General William J. Worth8,497 Mexico General Manuel RinconGeneral Pedro Anaya3,800 Battle of Churubusco - Background: With the beginning of the Mexican-American War in May 1946, Brigadier General Zachary Taylor won quick victories in Texas at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. Pausing to reinforce, he later invaded northern Mexico and captured the city of Monterrey. Though pleased with Taylors success, President James K. Polk was increasingly concerned about the generals political aspirations. As a result of this, and reports that an advance on Mexico City from Monterrey would be difficult, he began stripping Taylors army of men to form a new command for Major General Winfield Scott. This new army was tasked with capturing the port of Veracruz before moving inland against the Mexican capital. Polks approach nearly brought disaster when a badly outnumbered Taylor was attacked at Buena Vista in February 1847. In desperate fighting, he was able to hold off the Mexicans. Landing at Veracruz in March 1847, Scott captured the city after a twenty-day siege. Concerned about yellow fever along the coast, he quickly began marching inland and was soon confronted by a Mexican army led by General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. Attacking the Mexicans at Cerro Gordo on April 18, he routed the enemy before advancing to capture Puebla. Resuming the campaign in early August, Scott elected to approach Mexico City from the south rather than force the enemy defenses at El PeÃ ±Ã ³n. Rounding Lakes Chalco and Xochimilco his men arrived at San Augustin on August 18. Having anticipated an American advance from the east, Santa Anna began redeploying his army to the south and assumed a line along the Churubusco River (Map). Battle of Churubusco - Situation Before Contreras: To defend the southern approaches to the city, Santa Anna deployed troops under General Francisco Perez at Coyoacan with forces led by General Nicholas Bravo to the east at Churubusco. In the west, the Mexican right was held General Gabriel Valencias Army of the North at San Angel. Having established his new position, Santa Anna was separated from the Americans by a vast lava field known as the Pedregal. On August 18 Scott directed Major General William J. Worth to take his division along the direct road to Mexico City. Marching along the east edge of the Pedregal, the division and accompanying dragoons came under heavy fire at San Antonio, just south of Churubusco. Unable to flank the enemy due to the Pedregal to the west and water to the east, Worth elected to halt. In the west, Valencia, a political rival of Santa Anna, elected to advance his men five miles south to a position near the villages of Contreras and Padierna. Seeking to break the deadlock, Scott sent one of his engineers, Major Robert E. Lee, to find a path through the Pedregal to the west. Successful, Lee began leading American troops from Major Generals David Twiggs and Gideon Pillows divisions across the rough terrain on August 19. In the course of this movement, an artillery duel commenced with Valencia. As this continued, American troops moved unnoticed to the north and west and took positions around San Geronimo before nightfall. Battle of Churubusco - The Mexican Withdrawal: Attacking around dawn, American forces shattered Valencias command at the Battle of Contreras. Realizing that the triumph had unhinged the Mexican defenses in the area, Scott issued a series of orders following Valencias defeat. Among these were orders which countermanded earlier directives for Worths and Major General John Quitmans divisions to move west. Instead, these were ordered north towards San Antonio. Sending troops west into the Pedregal, Worth quickly outflanked the Mexican position and sent them reeling north. With his position south of the Churubusco River collapsing, Santa Anna made the decision to begin pulling back towards Mexico City. To do so, it was critical that his forces hold the bridge at Churubusco. Command of the Mexican forces at Churubusco fell to General Manuel Rincon who directed his troops to occupy fortifications near the bridge as well as the San Mateo Convent to the southwest. Among the defenders were members of the San Patricio Battalion which consisted of Irish deserters from the American army. With the two wings of his army converging on Churubusco, Scott immediately ordered Worth and Pillow to attack the bridge while Twiggs division assaulted the convent. In an uncharacteristic move, Scott had not scouted either of these positions and was unaware of their strength. While these attacks moved forward, the brigades of Brigadier Generals James Shields and Franklin Pierce were to move north over the bridge at Coyoacan before turning east for Portales. Had Scott reconnoitered Churubusco, he most likely would have sent the bulk of his men along Shields route. Battle of Churubusco - A Bloody Victory: Moving forward, the initial assaults against the bridge failed as Mexican forces held. They were aided by the timely arrival of militia reinforcements. Renewing the assault, the brigades of Brigadier Generals Newman S. Clarke and George Cadwalader finally carried the position after a determined attack. To the north, Shields successfully crossed the river before meeting a superior Mexican force at Portales. Under pressure, he was reinforced by the Mounted Rifles and a company of dragoons which were stripped from Twiggs division. With the bridge taken, American forces were able to reduce the convent. Charging forward, Captain Edmund B. Alexander led the 3rd Infantry in storming its walls. The convent quickly fell and many of the surviving San Patricios were captured. At Portales, Shields began to gain the upper hand and the enemy began to retreat as Worths division was seen advancing from bridge to the south. Battle of Churubusco - Aftermath: Uniting, the Americans mounted an ineffective pursuit of the Mexicans as they fled towards Mexico city. Their efforts were hampered by the narrow causeways which traversed swampy terrain. The fighting at Churubusco cost Scott 139 killed, 865 wounded, and 40 missing. Mexican losses numbered 263 killed, 460 wounded, 1,261 captured, and 20 missing. A disastrous day for Santa Anna, August 20 saw his forces defeated at Contreras and Churubusco and his entire defensive line south of the city shattered. In an effort to buy time to reorganize, Santa Anna requested short truce which Scott granted. It was Scotts hope that peace could be negotiated without his army having to storm the city. This truce quickly failed and Scott resumed operations in early September. These saw him win a costly victory at Molino del Rey before successfully taking Mexico City on September 13 after the Battle of Chapultepec. Selected Sources PBS: Battle of ChurubuscoSon of the South: Battle of ChurubuscoAztec Club: Battle of Churubusco - Map